Fangshan graphite mining

Fangshan rich mineral resources, of which coal is the staple crop. In addition to coal, there are mineral resources such as graphite and talc pyrophyllite.
The nature of graphite is the same as that of coal. More associated with the coal field. Fangshan's graphite mining is mainly in the Chechang Village, about 6 kilometers north of Zhoukoudian. The Chechang Village is located under the Cat Mountain, with abundant coal resources and many residents relying on coal mining. In 1939, villagers in the mining village three kilometers of the NATO ravine found graphite mine, known locally as lead powder, someone just shipped Zhoukoudian sold by the Japanese Tamai found. Yujing Yu invited Chengshan, the manager of the Japanese business Lingtan office in Beijing, to set up a large number of acquisitions in Zhoukoudian, causing nearby villagers to compete. Chengshan has set up a factory in Zhoukoudian to sort the graphite into two types, granular and final. It is transported to Beijing and other places in grass bags, and the quantity is about 2,000 tons. In 1945, when the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression was victorious, the Japanese withdrew and left about 1,000 tons of graphite in Zhoukoudian, which was sold to Beijing by locals. After the liberation, there was a private trade 褚 珠 珠 and Zhoukoudian Shen Delu joint venture mining, sold to Beijing. After the disagreement on the issue of interest, he stopped mining.
In 1952, Beijing Municipal Government established the Jingxi Mining Area Government. Zhoukoudian and Chechang Village were placed under the jurisdiction of the Jingxi Mining Area Government. The villagers organized the excavation of graphite production. In 1953, there were about 700 tons of stone powder processing plants, iron factories and chemical plants sold in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and other places. There are two kinds of goods, the quality goods are delivered at Zhoukoudian Railway Station, 40 per ton; the defective products are delivered in the graphite mine kiln of Chechang Village, 20-27 yuan per ton. By the end of 1953, there was still a backlog of 300 tons. In 1954, Chechang Village established a graphite production cooperative with an annual output of 400 tons of graphite. Because of the high cost and the difficulty of unification of specifications, it affects sales and production is difficult to sustain. It was stopped in April 1954. Only 560 tons were sold, and there was still a backlog of 219 tons by the end of the year. In 1955, the car factory graphite mine was re-exploited by agricultural and handicraft production cooperatives. The scale of production has been expanded and more regularized, and one mine has been built. The roadway is about 250 meters deep. However, the production method is still a local artillery mining, and the hole is dug deep, like a small coal mine. Take the wooden column as a support, use the iron shovel to plan the back of the basket, put it in the kiln, and then bag it and transport it to Zhoukoudian Railway Station. There are ventilation ducts, drain channels and safe passages in the mine. In the summer, the water is stopped and the production is resumed after the autumn. The labor intensity of the workers is relatively large, and the annual production period is about 8 months. The graphite produced is still sorted. The high-quality mouth is hard shiny, fine and slag-free, and has a large oiliness. It can be used to make carbon rods, battery cores, pencil cores and sanding, while the defective products can only be used for sanding. In 1954, the National Minerals Company had specially tested for export, and the carbon content did not meet foreign requirements.
In 1955, the amount of graphite was gradually reduced, the cost of excavation was too high, and the government of Jingxi Mining Area was withdrawn, and the graphite of the depot was stopped.

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